According to a 2014 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the transport sector was responsible for 14% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions from all economic sectors in 2010. As a business in this sector with continued growth in both unit sales and amount of passenger activity, Nissan is aiming to decouple emissions from company growth.
Our Long-Term Vision
Our CO2 Reduction Scenario
In 2006, based on calculations incorporating the findings of the IPCC’s Third Assessment Report and the goal of keeping global temperatures from rising more than 2 degrees Celsius, we set a scientifically grounded target for 2050 of reducing product CO2 emissions from new vehicles by 90% compared to 2000 levels. Recognizing that this would require to drastically reduce “well-to-wheel” CO2 emissions from new vehicles, we set about developing a new scenario for powertrain technologies. Under the Nissan Green Program 2022 (NGP2022), to remain on track with this target, we are aiming to reduce CO2 emissions from new vehicles by 40% compared to fiscal 2000 by 2022 (in Japan, the U.S., Europe and China) throughout the value chain as a whole. As a global leader in technological advancements through the electrification of our products, we believe we can substantially contribute to the global efforts to keep the temperature rise “well below” 2 degrees Celsius. These initiatives also reinforce the sustainability of our own business. We are driving the evolution of new technologies and businesses. Under the umbrella of Nissan Intelligent Mobility,* we take a unified approach to introducing, marketing and deploying new technologies, functions, businesses and services.
Click here for more information on Nissan Intelligent Mobility.
Pursuing a Zero-Emission Society
Building a Zero-Emission Society with EVs
Electric vehicles (EVs) demonstrate that what is good for drivers and the planet is also good for business. Widespread use of zero-emission vehicles, which produce no CO2 emissions during operation, is an effective way of moving toward a sustainable society. The auto industry must go beyond simply producing and selling these vehicles to help establish the infrastructure necessary to make them economical to use. No company can achieve this on its own. We consider the introduction and adoption of zero-emission vehicles one of the pillars of our corporate strategy. We are taking a comprehensive approach that involves boosting production and sales of zero-emission vehicles along with other activities coordinated with a variety of partners to popularize their use. We are committed to becoming a leader in the field of zero-emission vehicles. Not only are we increasing our development and production of zero-emission vehicles, we are forging numerous zero-emission partnerships with national and local governments, electric power companies and other industries to promote zero-emission mobility and explore how the necessary infrastructure can be built. We participate in a comprehensive range of vehicle-related initiatives, including the development of lithium-ion batteries, secondary use and recycling of batteries, construction of vehicle-charging infrastructure, helping to make smart grids a reality and standardization of charging methods with other manufacturers. Increasing uptake of zero-emission vehicles will bring lifestyle changes that lay the groundwork for a new mobility society. We provide more than just EVs themselves—we also embrace the new values that they represent.
Establishing Leadership in the EV Sector
Nissan EV Ecosystem
Our commitment to sustainable mobility addresses concerns over climate change and supports the sustainable growth of the company. Our 2010 launch of the first Nissan LEAF made us pioneers of mass-produced EVs. Since then, we have sold more than 530,000 EVs (including joint venture sales) around the world in total, and our midterm plan, Nissan M.O.V.E. to 2022, calls for even more Nissan EVs, designed to appeal to customers with an ever-wider range of needs. Furthermore, our history with EVs goes deeper than simply manufacturing and selling the vehicles themselves. We helped to establish an environment allowing EVs to become part of our customers’ lifestyles, and developed the Nissan Energy solution for enjoying life with an EV to the fullest. Together, these initiatives created what we call the Nissan EV Ecosystem. As we continue to strive for a zero-emission society, we will expand and develop the Nissan EV Ecosystem even further.
Management of Product Initiatives
Key Activities in NGP2022
The CO2 emissions of a vehicle in use are influenced not only by engine performance and fuel type but also by traffic conditions and driving skills. Decarbonizing society will require new vehicle usage patterns. Nissan takes a threefold approach to mitigating real-world CO2 emissions that addresses vehicle, driver and new mobility value.
1. Adopt cleaner energy to reduce vehicle CO2 emissions
Extend electrification across all brands under the Nissan Intelligent Mobility strategy.*1 Expand electric vehicle (EV) lineup and deploy e-POWER technology in core Nissan products.
2. Promote technology-based driver assistance and accelerate connected car development and commercialization
3. Provide new mobility value
Provide new mobility services and expand the value of vehicle use. Pursue global expansion of V2X*2 energy management solutions (commercialization in the United States and Europe, and expansion of LEAF to Home in Japan) and engage with stakeholders to support V2X device commercialization.
Click here for more information on Nissan Intelligent Mobility.
V2X: Abbreviation for Vehicle to Everything, a term describing technology and systems for handling communication in vehicles. One example of V2X technology is Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G), which allows smart optimization of electricity supply according to demand.
Product Initiatives: Achievements
Toward a 40% Reduction in New Vehicle CO2 Emissions
Nissan strives to develop technologies that maximize the overall energy efficiency of conventional internal combustion engines and improve transmission performance. We are also working to boost the efficiency of electrification systems that capture and reuse kinetic energy from braking. Electrification is just one of our concrete monozukuri initiatives in technical innovation. We select the optimal fuel economy technologies for particular vehicles, taking into consideration factors like space within the vehicle, usage and economics, and bring them to market. Our goal is to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions without sacrificing the pleasure and ease of driving. By fiscal 2022, we aim to achieve a 40% reduction in CO2 emissions* compared to fiscal 2000 levels.
From new vehicles in the Japanese, U.S., European and Chinese markets.
CO2 Emissions from New Vehicles (Global)*
In fiscal 2018, CO2 emissions in Nissan’s main markets of Japan, the U.S., Europe and China were 33.0% lower than fiscal 2000 levels, as measured by Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE). This was a slight regression from fiscal 2017 due to changes in the powertrain sales mix in the EU.
Reduction in CO2 emissions calculated by Nissan.
Electrification and Internal Combustion Engine Initiatives
Nissan LEAF Sales Exceed 400,000, Further Reducing Environmental Burden
The Nissan LEAF emits no CO2 or other exhaust during operation. Since its launch in 2010, it has earned high praise for the smooth, strong acceleration and quiet operation of its electric motor powered by a lithium-ion battery. As part of our midterm plan, Nissan M.O.V.E. to 2022, we are aiming for annual aggregate sales of 1 million 100% electric vehicles (EVs) and e-POWER vehicles by fiscal 2022. With total cumulative sales of the Nissan LEAF worldwide exceeding 400,000 vehicles as of March 2019, it remains the best-selling EV in the world. In China, we manufacture the Nissan Sylphy Zero Emission model, which inherits the core technologies of the Nissan LEAF, for the local market. While the low environmental impact of Nissan’s EVs is attractive, these figures were likely driven at least in part by consumer awareness of other factors, such as low fuel and maintenance costs and superior acceleration and steering performance.
Our calculations show that the Nissan LEAF and other EVs can produce fewer CO2 emissions over their entire lifecycle compared to gasoline-powered vehicles of the same class―from the extraction of raw materials, manufacturing, logistics and use, to end-of-life disposal. By contributing to the shift to renewable energy, EVs play an essential role beyond transportation in helping to achieve a low-carbon society.
Click here for more information on Nissan LEAF lifecycle assessment.
Launched in October 2017, the new Nissan LEAF is a zero-emission vehicle equipped with innovative semi-autonomous drive technologies like ProPILOT, ProPILOT Park and e-Pedal. It offers greater power output, a longer driving range and more convenience than ever. This significant improvement in power output and driving range is made possible by a lighter and more compact high-capacity lithium-ion battery. We have adopted a new material*1 capable of storing a higher density of energy, decreasing the battery’s size but increasing its capacity. This innovation made it possible to expand the Nissan LEAF’s driving range from 200 kilometers (for the original 2010 model) to 322 kilometers*2 for the new Nissan LEAF, while at the same time improving electricity consumption. In January 2019, Nissan introduced the Nissan LEAF e+, equipped with a newly developed e-POWER powertrain that further enhances its acceleration capabilities during high speed operation and increases its maximum speed by about 10%.*3
Our newly adopted layered structure for cathode material contributes to larger battery capacity by helping to store lithium ions at high density.
Measured in WLTC mode (equivalent to 400 km in JC08 mode and 150 miles under U.S. EPA standards).
458 km in WLTC mode and 570 km in JC08 mode. The maximum range is 226 miles under U.S. EPA standards and 385 km in European WLTP (combined cycle).
Enhancing Our 100% Electric-Motor-Powered e-POWER Drivetrain and Its Lineup
CO2 emissions calculated from the fuel consumption rate in JC08 mode (measurement method of Japan’s Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism).
In November 2016, in Japan, we launched the first vehicle to feature our innovative new e-POWER drive system: the new compact Note e-POWER. In March 2018, the e-POWER system was further expanded to the Serena, also for the Japanese market. Both the Note e-POWER and the Serena e-POWER have received high praise from customers, achieving No. 1 sales rankings in their respective segments. The e-POWER system combines an electric motor, which drives the wheels, with a gasoline engine that charges the vehicle’s battery. Because the e-POWER uses gasoline as its power source, it eliminates the need to charge the battery. In addition, because the actual drive comes from an electric motor, it offers driving comfort similar to that of an EV, making e-POWER a new powertrain completely different from the hybrid systems commonly used in previous compact cars. As the gasoline engine does not directly drive the wheels, it can be run under optimal conditions (RPM, load) at all times to generate electricity. In city driving, where it is expected to see frequent use, the Serena e-POWER achieves top-class fuel economy* compared with standard hybrid vehicle types. In e-POWER Drive mode, the driver can accelerate or decelerate simply by using the accelerator pedal, and the regenerative brake system also helps improve fuel economy by charging the battery.
As of when the model first went on sale, as measured in JC08 mode: Serena e-POWER, 26.2 km/L.
The e-NV200: A Practical, Sustainable City Delivery Vehicle
Based on the Nissan NV200, a multipurpose commercial van, the e-NV200 retains the roominess and versatility of the NV200 and adds the acceleration performance and refinement of an EV. It has been produced at our Barcelona Plant in Spain since June 2014 and is sold mainly in Europe and Japan. The e-NV200 is used by taxi services in Barcelona and Amsterdam. In Japan, it has been adopted by a wide range of customers, from urban delivery businesses to local authorities. Compared to commercial vehicles using internal combustion engines, the e-NV200 reduces operating costs and excels in environmental performance with reduced noise pollution and other features. Equipped with two power outlets that can draw a maximum of 1,500 watts of power from the battery, the vehicle provides a convenient and safe electrical power source that comes in handy for offsite jobs and outdoor events as well as emergencies. At construction sites, the e-NV200 contributes to reducing noise levels by providing electricity in place of engine generators.
Progress in Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are hybrid cars that can run on electricity charged from an external source as well as fuel. With this combination of engines and electric motors, they provide motor operation equivalent to EVs. We are actively developing PHEVs, leveraging Alliance technologies with a view to launching them in the future.
Fuel-Cell Electric Vehicles
Powered by electricity generated from hydrogen and oxygen, fuel-cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are another type of zero-emission vehicle that does not produce CO2 or other harmful emissions. We believe that, as part of building a sustainable mobility society, both FCEVs and EVs are viable options from an energy diversity perspective. In alignment with Japanese government policies, we joined forces with Toyota Motor Corp., Honda Motor Co. and other companies to establish Japan H2 Mobility, LLC (JHyM), targeting the full-fledged development of hydrogen stations for FCEVs in Japan. Addressing the key issues raised during the initial stage of FCEV promotion, JHyM will ensure that infrastructure developers, automakers and investors all do their part to support the successful strategic deployment of hydrogen stations and effective operation of the hydrogen station business in Japan.
New e-Bio Fuel-Cell Technology Announcement
In June 2016, Nissan unveiled an e-Bio Fuel-Cell system that runs on bio-ethanol electric power. The new system—a world first for automotive use—features a solid oxide fuel-cell (SOFC) power generator. SOFC technology can produce electricity with high efficiency using the reaction of oxygen with multiple fuels, including ethanol and natural gas. Infrastructure to support e-Bio Fuel-Cell usage is relatively easy to deploy, and vehicles using this technology feature running costs as low as those of EVs, promising a smooth introduction to the market. Because our technology combines the efficient electricity generation of SOFC with the high energy density of liquid fuels, it can enable driving ranges on a par with gasoline-powered vehicles. Commercial users that require higher uptime for their vehicles should increasingly be able to take advantage of this solution thanks to the short refueling times it offers.
Development of the VC-Turbo
The VC-Turbo is the world’s first production-ready variable compression ratio engine, first deployed in November 2017 in the new QX50, part of our INFINITI brand’s premium vehicle lineup. The VC-Turbo has also been deployed in the United States, in the new Altima. It delivers the power of a V6 gasoline engine with greatly improved fuel economy. The engine swiftly selects the optimum compression ratio between 8:1 (for high performance) and 14:1 (for high efficiency) based on driving conditions and driver input. Lighter and more compact than comparable non-turbocharged engines, the VC-Turbo also delivers reduced fuel consumption and emissions, lower noise levels and reduced vibration.
Development and Introduction of New Powertrains
Nissan is working to enhance fuel economy by improving gasoline-powered engines, the engines that are still the most widely used in the automobile market. In the United States, we launched the new Altima equipped with a newly developed 2.5-liter direct-injection engine. The vehicle’s direct-injection system, cooled exhaust gas recirculation system, electric intake valve timing control and mirror bore coating technology all combine to improve fuel economy. In Europe, we adopted a new 1.3-liter turbo gasoline engine in the Qashqai. The new engine features gasoline particulate filters to reduce air pollution, and improves fuel economy by 7% through reduced wear loss and optimized designs for the combustion chamber and turbo system. In Japan, we launched the new Nissan Dayz in March 2019, a “kei” minicar equipped with a newly developed 0.66-liter gasoline engine. Its innovative powertrain combines a new continuously variable transmission (CVT) with a smart and simple hybrid system that achieves significantly improved fuel economy.
Initiatives for Lighter Vehicles
Toward Lighter Vehicles
Making vehicles lighter is an important part of improving fuel economy. We are promoting vehicle weight reduction by optimizing vehicle body structure, developing better forming and joining techniques and substituting materials. In 2013, we developed 1.2 gigapascal (GPa) Ultra High Tensile Strength Steel with High Formability, the world’s first material to combine these levels of tensile strength and formability, and put it to use in the INFINITI Q50 (marketed in Japan as the Skyline), the Murano and the INFINITI Q60. In 2018, we adopted 980 megapascal (MPa) Ultra High Tensile Strength Steel with High Formability, which features further improvements in collision energy absorption performance, for the INFINITI QX50. Ultra High Tensile Strength Steel reduces the amount of material used while allowing production on the same lines, making it possible to create lighter cars with thinner components and lower total costs, and we have been expanding our use of this material in other models as well. It is already used for the body frame parts of the new Altima (1.2 GPa class/980 MPa class), launched in 2018, and the new Nissan Dayz (1.2 GPa class), launched in 2019. We will continue to pursue ambitious development of weight reduction technologies, including these Ultra High Tensile Strength Steels, in order to reduce CO2 emissions and dependence on newly extracted natural resources.
Initiatives for Partnerships with Society
Nissan Energy: Solutions that Enrich Life and Society with EVs
As part of our efforts to help build the EV ecosystem, we launched a group of solutions we call Nissan Energy. Nissan Energy has three main components, each of which is designed to support our customers’ lifestyles with EVs in a different way.
Nissan Energy Supply
Nissan Energy Supply includes various electric charging solutions that bring ease and convenience to the lifestyles of our EV customers. The majority of our EV customers find it convenient to charge their EVs at home. To help ensure that our vehicles can be charged safely, we guide customers to use suitable charging equipment and engage qualified installers to install electrical outlets dedicated to EVs. The Nissan LEAF offers an ample driving range for daily use, but customers venturing further from home can make use of a fast-growing charging network. Our dedicated EV app lets customers find and check the real-time status of charging stations. This not only makes charging easier and more convenient but also provides a seamless charging experience. As of the end of March 2019, approximately 24,000 quick chargers conforming to the CHAdeMO protocol have been installed worldwide.
Nissan Energy Share
The electricity stored in the Nissan EV’s battery can do more than just power the vehicle; it can be shared with homes, buildings and local communities through power conditioning systems. Using inexpensive electricity during off-peak periods and excess electricity generated by solar panels during daytime reduces electricity costs and helps promote a model of self-generation of electricity for self-consumption. Furthermore, Nissan Energy Share makes it possible for EVs to provide backup power during blackouts or emergencies. Local communities can connect EVs to regional energy grids to store or discharge excess electricity, which contributes to the stability of the entire community’s power grid and promotes renewable energy use. It is difficult to control precisely when electricity is generated by renewable energy sources like solar power, which has created high expectations for the potential of large-capacity EV batteries in particular to support our social infrastructure by storing renewable energy.
Nissan Energy Storage
The life of an EV battery is not over when it has finished its first life of powering a car. As more and more customers switch to EVs, the supply of batteries capable of secondary use is expected to increase significantly. In 2010, Nissan, as an EV pioneer, joined forces with Sumitomo Corp. to establish 4R Energy Corp., which specializes in repurposing lithium-ion batteries. The intention is to fully utilize resources by promoting the four Rs of lithium-ion batteries—reuse, resell, refabricate and recycle—with the aim of building an efficient cycle of battery use.
Reducing Congestion and Enhancing Environmental Performance with ITS
A vehicle’s fuel economy depends not just on its own capabilities but also on how and where it is driven. We are using the Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) as part of our active efforts to create infrastructure that will help to improve traffic environments. Starting in 2010, under commission from Japan’s New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), we worked with the Beijing Municipal Commission of Transport. In the Chinese capital, we conducted tests of a dynamic route guidance system (DRGS) using IT terminals and eco-driving support to alleviate traffic congestion in the city. In one experiment lasting approximately a year, around 12,000 resident drivers in Beijing’s Wangjing district used Portable Navigation Devices with DRGS and eco-driving support. Results from the experiment showed that DRGS cut travel time by 5.1% and increased fuel economy by 7.6%. Because avoiding busy roads and using less crowded routes disperses congestion, it can also make it possible to improve driving speeds across the entire area. Furthermore, by helping drivers cultivate better driving habits, eco-driving support increased fuel economy by 6.8%. A simulation conducted at the same time estimated that if 10% of Beijing’s traffic used DRGS, travel speed throughout the city would increase by approximately 10%, while both fuel consumption and CO2 emissions would decrease by approximately 10%. The Beijing Municipal Commission of Transport presented Nissan with an award for its major contributions toward easing congestion, saving energy and improving the environment in Beijing through this successful project. In an official publication, China’s Ministry of Commerce also gave the company a Corporate Leadership Award. As the next step, we are conducting research projects in cooperation with Chinese government authorities and universities aimed at raising air quality using ITS and EVs. We have learned that eco-driving support services, which encourage gentle braking and acceleration and maintenance of stable speeds, lead to safer driving. This can reduce traffic congestion caused by traffic accidents and help to improve air quality. Our study also proved that in China, which relies heavily on coal for power, EVs not only contribute to saving energy but also lead to reductions in air pollutants like PM2.5 and well-to-wheel CO2 emissions. The research further indicates that use of bus lanes as reserved lanes for zero-emission vehicles will improve traffic flow, also contributing to reduction in CO2 emissions and other positive environmental effects. These research results, acclaimed by the Chinese government and the Beijing municipal government, are incorporated in their respective environmental plans. Nissan is promoting Nissan Intelligent Mobility (NIM) including new mobility services, and this research explores the potential effect of widespread NIM adoption on traffic and the environment. We will continue to actively work toward improvement in urban environments and air quality.
The Nissan New Mobility Concept
The Nissan New Mobility Concept is an ultracompact 100% electric vehicle that was developed in response to social trends like rising numbers of senior citizens, single-member households and the increasing use of automobiles for short-distance trips by just one or two people. Even smaller than a “kei” minicar, the Nissan New Mobility Concept offers the driver excellent visibility and a good feel for the dimensions of the vehicle, making it an ideal choice for use in residential neighborhoods and other areas with narrow streets and poor visibility, as well as regional cities and islands pursuing compact-city policies. Since fiscal 2011, with cooperation from Japan’s Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT), we have conducted tests and surveys through driving trials held together with corporations and local governments. Based on MLIT’s January 2013 announcement of an authorization system for use of ultracompact vehicles on public roads, we are currently testing vehicles in 25 areas, including the area covered by Choimobi Yokohama, a round-trip urban ride-sharing service that we operate together with the city of Yokohama. To date, the vehicles have mainly been used for tourist purposes as part of regional revitalization, but, in preparation for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics, we have been testing ultracompacts as rental cars for sightseeing on the island of Shikine-jima, Tokyo, since May 2018. This is a trial business aimed at expanding the use of EVs on small islets, an idea promoted by the Tokyo metropolitan government. We make full use of the knowledge and information acquired from all of our nationwide projects, offering advice on new uses for EVs and ways to improve traffic flow and implement smart mobility for the next generation.
Click here for more information (environmental data) on Climate Change (Products).